How social media, aided by bots, amplifies Islamophobia online

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In August 2021, a Facebook ad campaign criticizing Ilhan Omar and Rashida Tlaib, the United States’ first Muslim congresswomen, came under intense scrutiny. Critics charged that the ads linked the congresswomen with terrorism, and some faith leaders condemned the campaign as “Islamophobic”—that is, spreading fear of Islam and hatred against Muslims.